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    GENERAL REVISION

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    طالبة العلم
    مشرف

    عدد المساهمات : 105
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    تاريخ التسجيل : 19/03/2011
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    الموقع : ارض الله

    M1 GENERAL REVISION

    مُساهمة من طرف طالبة العلم في الأربعاء يونيو 08, 2011 8:29 pm

    GENERAL REVISION





    I/ SPELLING


    Nouns, verbs and adjectives can have the
    following endings :


    Noun+ s/es (plural)

    Books, ideas, matches

    Verb+ s/es (after he, she, it)

    Works, enjoys, washes

    Verb+ ing

    Working, enjoying, washing

    Verb+ ed

    Worked, enjoyed, washed

    Adjective+ er (comparative)

    Cheaper, quicker, brighter

    Adjective+ est (superlative)

    Cheapest, quickest, brightest

    Adjective+ ly (adverb)

    Cheaply, quickly, brightly



    When we use these endings, there are sometimes
    changes in spelling:


    Nouns
    and verbs +s/ es




    The ending is (es) when the word
    ends in s, ss, sh, ch, x.


    Example: bus/ buses miss/ misses wash/ washes match/ matches box/ boxes


    words
    ending in (y) like baby, carry, easy:




    if a word ends in a consonant + (by,
    ry, sy, vy, …):


    (Y) changes to (ie) before the ending (s):

    Baby/ babies story/ stories try/ tries country/ countries

    (Y) changes to (i) before the ending (ed):

    Hurry/ hurried study/studied apply/ applied

    (Y) changes to (i) before the endings (er and
    est)

    Easy/ easier, easiest lucky/ luckier, luckiest

    (Y) changes to (i) before the ending (ly)

    Easy/ easily heavy/ heavily






    (Y)
    does not change before (ing): hurriying tryinf
    (Y)
    does not change if the word ends in a vowel + y (ay, ey, oy, uy)







    An exception is : day/ daily, lay/ laid say/ said


    Doubling consonants: Sometimes, a word ends in
    a vowel + a consonant like in:


    Stop, plan, wet, thin, slip, prefer, regret


    Before the endings (ing, ed, er, est), we
    double the consonant:


    Stop_stopped, stopping; thin_ thinner, thinnest.


    BUT we do not double (y) or (w) at the
    end of words: stay_stayed; grow_
    growing.





    II/SYLLABLE DIVISION/
    SOME RULES


    one
    syllable word is never divides: example: ill
    when
    the word has a prefix, divide the word between the root and the prefix:
    eg: mis/use
    when
    the word has a suffix, divide between the root and the suffix: fee/ly
    when
    two consonants come between two vowels, the word is divided after the
    first consonant: of/ten
    when
    a consonant comes between two vowels, the word is divided before the
    consonant: mu/sic
    when
    two vowels come together and are pronounced separately, the word is
    divided between the two vowels: radi/o
    when
    a vowel is sounded alone in a word, it forms a syllable: e/vent
















    III/ STRESS : a stressed syllable is part of a
    word that is pronounced longer and louder than the other parts.


    Most
    of 2 syllabic words are stressed on the first syllable if it is not a
    prefix.




    Example: open, winter precious


    BUT : begin, forget, believe, resume, occur, alarm, result, again, perhaps, event, advice


    Most
    of 3 syllabic words are stressed on the first syllable of the root:




    Example: difficult, organise, sensitive


    BUT: remember together
    professor





    All words ending in ‘ion’ are stressed on the
    syllable before the last:


    Example: division, examination, tradition, revolution, illusion





    IV/ REPORTED SPEECH


    1/ REPORTED STATEMENTS:


    When the reporting verb is in the present,
    there is no change in tense:


    “ I’m a teacher.” She says
    that she is a teacher. Here, we’ve used the present simple in both sentences
    because the reporting verb (say) is in the present.


    BUT: When the reporting verb is in the past,
    there are always corresponding tenses to the ones used in the direct speech
    simply because we don’t report what happens but what happened.


    Example:


    “I am a teacher”. She said
    that she was a teacher.


    Present simple

    Past simple

    Present continuous

    Past continuous

    Present perfect simple

    Past perfect simple

    Present perfect continuous

    Past perfect continuous

    Past simple

    Past perfect

    Past continuous

    Past perfect continuous

    Past perfect

    Past perfect (no possible change)

    Past perfect continuous

    Past perfect continuous (no possible change)






    Other verb forms also change:


    will

    Would

    can

    Could

    must

    Had to

    shall

    Should

    may

    Might






    Time and place references:


    now

    then

    today

    That day

    here

    There

    this

    That

    tomorrow

    The following day, the next day, the day
    after

    Next week

    The following week, the next week, the week
    after

    yesterday

    The previous day, the day before

    Last week

    The previous week, the week before

    A week ago

    A week before

    tonight

    That night

    Last Sunday

    The previous Sunday, the Sunday before



    2/ REPORTED QUESTIONS


    a) “WH” QUESTIONS:


    After the reporting verb, we :
    first, rewrite the “wh” word


    Second: rewrite the subject



    Third: rewrite the verb in the corresponding tense if the reporting verb
    is in the past.


    b)
    “YES/
    NO” QUESTIONS:


    After the reporting verb, we: first:
    write if or whether



    Second:
    write the subject



    Third: write the verb in the corresponding tense.


    3/ REPORTED INSTRUCTIONS AND REQUESTS/
    ORDERS


    a)
    Affirmative commands:
    to + STEM


    b)
    Negative commands: not
    to + STEM


    V/ PASSIVE TENSES


    Present
    Simple : is or are + past participle




    Eg: Computers are shipped to many
    countries.


    Present
    Continuous: is/are + being + past participle




    The food is being prepared.


    * Past Simple: was/ were + past
    participle


    Eg: The package was delivered
    yesterday.


    Past
    continuous : was/ were + being +
    past participle




    Eg: The house was being painted when
    I arrived.


    Present
    Perfect Simple : has/ have + been + past participle




    Eg: Over 20 models have been
    produced.


    Past
    Perfect Simple: had + been + past participle




    Eg: We had been given visas for
    three months.


    Modals
    (can, may…) modal + be + past participle




    Eg: The computer can be used.


    VI/ CONDIRIONAL
    SENTENCES


    1/ IF CLAUSES


    TYPE ONE: if + Present Simple, Future


    Eg: If you don’t go to the doctor soon, the
    problem will get worse.


    TYPE TWO: if
    + Past Simple, would + infinitive


    Eg: If I had time, I would call him.


    TYPE THREE: if + Past Perfect, would have +
    past participle


    Eg: If I hadn’t called, I wouldn’t have known
    about the meeting.





    2/ THE USE OF “UNLESS”


    Unless + affirmative verb is similar to if +
    negative verb.


    Eg: unless I hurry, I will miss the bus = If I
    don’t hurry, I will miss the bus.
































    VII/ PRONUNCIATION OF
    THE FINAL “s”


    The
    final “s” is pronounced /s/ after: t, p, k, f, th( ث)
    The
    final “s” is pronounced /z/ after: d, b, g, m, n, r, v, l, th (ذ)
    The
    final “s” is pronounced /iz/ after: sh, ch, s, z, ge, dge




    VIII/ PRONUNCIATION OF
    FINAL “ed”


    The
    final “ed” is pronounced /id/ after: t, d
    The
    final “ed” is pronounced /d/ after: b, g, v, ge, dge, z, m, n, w, l, r, y,
    th
    The
    final “ed” is pronounced /t/ after: p, k, f, sh, ch.




    IX/
    PLURAL


    General rule: singular + s
    (girl__girls)


    nouns
    ending in s, z, x, sh, ch: add es (box__boxes)
    nouns
    ending in a consonant + y: y changes to (i) and add es (spy__spies)
    nouns
    ending in f/ fe: change f/fe to (v) and add es (life__lives)








    X/ RELATIVE CLAUSES


    WHO/ WHICH/ THAT: when subject of
    the relative clause, I cannot omit them.


    Eg: We know a lot of people who live in London. Here, “ who” is subject and it can’t
    be omitted.


    When these relative pronouns are
    object of the relative clause, they can be
    omitted.


    Eg: The woman (who) I wanted to see
    was away on vacation. Here, “who” is object and it can be omitted.


    WHOSE is used instead of his, her,
    their




    _________________
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    midsat
    مشرف

    عدد المساهمات : 75
    نقاط : 126
    تاريخ التسجيل : 27/03/2011
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    M1 رد: GENERAL REVISION

    مُساهمة من طرف midsat في الخميس يونيو 30, 2011 11:35 am

    very nice topic
    good luck

    BIBBAH

    عدد المساهمات : 17
    نقاط : 49
    تاريخ التسجيل : 06/06/2011
    العمر : 35

    M1 رد: GENERAL REVISION

    مُساهمة من طرف BIBBAH في الأربعاء يوليو 13, 2011 1:34 pm

    thanks a lot for this nice and helpful topic

    you're the best

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الخميس أكتوبر 19, 2017 1:57 pm